The article is mainly about the brief introduction of lithium battery, the construction and classification of lithium battery.
LIthium batteries are divided into two types, lithium-metal battery and lithium-ion battery.We usually refer to lithium-ion battery as lithium battery.
Lithium-metal batteries generally use manganese dioxide as the cathode material, metallic lithium or its alloying metal as the anode material and with non-electrolyte solutions as the ionic conductor. Lithium is very chemically active so that it is difficuit to be processed, stored and used. What’s more, lithium-metal battery is disposable. Lithium-metal batteries haven’t been vigorously developed so far because of these drawbacks.
Liithium-ion batteries are the ones with lithium alloy oxide as the cathode material, graphite as the anode material, and non-aqueous electrolyte as the ionic conductor.They are not only rechargeable and stable but also with the advantages of small size, large capacity and high voltage. Lithium-ion batteries have been developed as the main power battery and recognized as one of the ideal chemical energy products.
Lithium-ion battery is composed of positive electrode, negative electrode, electrolyte, diaphragm and shell. Cathode material, anode material , electrolyte and diaphragm are known as the most four important components of battery. The cathode material occupies a core position in the lithium battery. Its performance will directly affect the indicators of the lithium battery. On the other hand ,the battery is usually named after its cathode material. Such as lithium iron- phosphate battery, lithium cobalt battery , lithium manganate battery and so on.
Cathode activity material is an signature part of positive electrode, and is made up of lithium and other matal (e.g. aluminum,cobalt). Cathod material is helpful for battery to be charged and dischanged, improve the safety and reliability of batteries meanwhile. The activity material can affect the key indicators of battery such as energy density, charge-discharge rate, chemical stability and thermal stability. At present, the cathode material developed successfully and used widely include lithium cobaltate, lithium manganate, and ternary lithium.
The anode materials mainly include carbon negative electrode materials and non-carbon negative electrode materials. The former is composed of carbon materials and metal oxides. It is the carrier of lithium ions and electrons during charging and discharging, and plays the role of energy storage and release. Carbon materials are currently the most widely used negative electrode materials, such as graphite and coke.
Electrolyte is one of the key materials of lithium batteries that conducts electricity between the positive and negative electrodes of lithium batteries. It plays an important role in battery energy density, power density, wide temperature application, cycle life, and safety performance.
The electrolyte is made up of high-purity organic solvent, high-purity solute and necessary additives in a certain proportion, and the mass proportions are 83%, 12% and 5% respectively. In view of the different unit prices of each part, they account for 30% , 50% and 10% of the cost of the electrolyte respectively.
According to the electrolyte form: there are liquid electrolyte and solid polymer electrolyte (solid and gel). At present, most of the electrolytes used in commercial lithium-ion batteries are liquid ,which adopts LiPF6 as the solute .
The diaphragm is located between the positive and negative electrodes of the battery and is one of the key inner components. The main function is to separate the positive and negative poles of the battery to prevent short circuit caused by contact between the two poles. In addition, it also has the function of allowing lithium ions to pass through. The performance of the diaphragm determines the cross-sectional structure and internal resistance of the battery, which directly affects the battery capacity, cycle life and safety performance.
The main diaphragm products include single-layer PP, single-layer PE, PP+ceramic coating, PE+ceramic coating, double-layer PP/PE, double-layer PP/PP and triple-layer PP/PE/PP, etc.
According to appearance: square lithium batteries (such as commonly used mobile phone battery cells) and cylindrical;
According to the outsourcing materials: aluminum shell lithium battery, steel shell lithium battery, soft pack battery;
According to the positive electrode material: lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) battery, lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4), ternary lithium (NCM or NCA), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), disposable manganese dioxide lithium battery;
According to different functions and usage: disposable-lithium manganese battery; high capacity (high platform)-used in mobile digital products; high rate-used in electric vehicles, electric tools and airplane models; high temperature resistance – miner’s lamp, indoor lighting; low temperature resistance – outdoor environment,south pole.
There are three main types of lithium batteries for electric vehicles: iron lithium, manganese lithium, and ternary lithium.
There will be a huge number of lithium battery recycling in the future and the recovery value is considerable accordingly. Our company has worked out a physical separation and recovery line of lithium battery, if you are interested in our machines and lithium battery recovery , please feel free to contact us.